Speech Sound Disorder

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What is Speech Sound Disorders (Articulation & Phonological Disorders)

It can be defined as a delay in the development of children’s speech and/or difficulty in speaking.


Speech Sound Disorder:

It is a condition that gathers various subcategories under its umbrella, such as articulation disorder, phonological disorder; it can also be seen as a result of organic causes such as hearing loss or cleft lip and/or palate. In these cases, structural and neurological problems are the cause of speech sound disorders. 

In addition, many children may have articulation or phonological disorders of unknown cause without a significant organic, neurological, and physical problem.

Articulation Disorder:

Articulation is the way of shaping the speech sounds through motor movements in accordance with a certain order one after another that various organs & structures involved to perform speech. Soft palate, uvula, tongue, teeth, lips, jaw are the articulators that shape the sounds. For example, “wed” for “red”, “geen” for “green”, or “sthun” for “sun”.

Phonological Disorder:

In each language, sounds are combined and used within the framework of certain grammatical rules. In phonological disorder, the child may have difficulty acquiring and applying these rules together. They may change the position of the syllables, use one sound instead of another, or add and drop sounds. For example, “kime” for “time”, “take” for “bake”, or “ma” for “mom”.


Apraxia is a rare type of speech disorder that makes it difficult to move the mouth in the way needed to produce sounds and words.

Apraxia occurs when the brain can’t move the mouth, lips, jaw, and tongue properly. Even though they know what they want to say, people with apraxia have problems pronouncing sounds, syllables, and words.

The condition is usually noticed when a child is first learning to talk, but it can continue into adulthood. In adults, it can be caused by a brain injury or dementia.

Apraxia of speech is also known as dyspraxia, developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) or childhood apraxia of speech (CAS).


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